Final Exam: Writing develops logical thinking skills.

After completion of several writing assignments and writing of some reading responses, this semester passes, which is faster than I can imagine. This is my third English composition class. I can tell that my English writing skills has been improved a lot, and also I have learned some useful things in this class. From writing struggle a lot to capable of organizing my thoughts through analyzing various external sources, I’m so proud of what I have learned in this class. When I compare the essays written in previous classes and the one from my recent class, I am surprised to find out the progress that I have achieved step by step. The progress not only reflects in my writing skills, but more importantly, it facilitates my logical thinking skills. Many might say that writing is only a way of expressing thoughts. However, as a matter of fact, writing by applying academic methods and mingling scholarly thoughts could develop my logical thinking skills.

First of all, as an international student, grammar and word choice are the biggest challenges in the English composition class. Because of the lacking practice of writing and reading in English, sometimes  I feel difficulty in expressing my thoughts clearly and logically in English. As always mentioned in my self-assessment, I need to get help from my professor and my peers from time to time. With the suggestion from Dr. Havard and my peers, I am able to get my thoughts down to paper in English. During the process, I gradually realize that writing helps me remember English usage and grammar easily and make fewer mistakes. For example, I used to write English works by using the English/Chinese dictionary when I met with some grammatical difficulties or confusion of word choice. But sometime, the translation is not that accurate because of the differences existed in pattern of thinking between Chinese-speaking and English-speaking people. After trying to write English more often and get help from the others in using authentic English phrase and grammar usage, I found out that it is easy to write by remembering usage rules. Therefore, I have a good command of both writing and speaking English, at the meantime, I have developed the different logical thinking skills.

Secondly, English composition follows distinct and strict structure. There are a lot of English writing skills. One of the most crucial skills is the ability to design structure, no matter in a sentence, a paragraph or an article. The success of a structure organization depends on whether the logical of an article is clear. When I write the last research essay, the superfluous information made it difficult for me to organize the essential ideas and thoughts. For instance, When I try to justify my opinion, I always elaborate the opinion in different word instead of explaining it with detailed information or examples, which is not convincing to the audience. After taking three English composition classes, I developed the logical thinking skills when I try to organize a sentence, a paragraph, and an article as a whole.  For example, when I try to write a paragraph, I start thinking of the thesis statement, then, I will justify it with details or example, and the last sentence will draw the whole paragraph into a conclusion. Thus, writing do help me to develop my logical thinking skills.

Logical thinking skills are significant importance to my future career development. Within the context of marketing, marketers not only need to communicate with internal personnel, but also need to communicate with external people to smooth the marketing activities. To be a good communicator, I should be logical when I having conversation with others. Moreover, I should be fully aware of which point I want to make or what idea I want express. This is akin to get them written on paper. In addition, the conducting of marketing activities must also fall within a logical order, for example, to get everything arranged step by step or to prioritize certain things. The logical thinking skills that developed by writing would be beneficial to my future career.

After taking several composition class, I did learn many useful methods in writing in English, such as summarizing skills, narrative methods, brainstorming. However, writing is a long way to go, there still left many that I need to learning in order to master English. This class taught me many interesting facts about Internet, we usually have many discussion in the class. I found out that American education system is encourage students to be free to express their thoughts, which is distinctly different compare to the education system that I used to study in my country. I have discussed this issue with Dr. Havard and many of my friends, then, I realized that being free to express my thoughts is a way to communicate with different people, to know the different people,which could helps me develop my language and logical thinking skills in daily life and professional career.

In conclusion, The English composition classes not only help me to have improvement in my writing skills, most importantly, it helps me realized that how important the writing is in my life. Writing develops my logical thinking skills in term of the fact that not only facilitates students’ writing skills, but also builds a strict logical thinking and expand their strict logical thinking to everything. These two factors contribute to the formulation of logical thinking. Logical thinking is beneficial to future career development. It is necessary in every communication practice and the implementation of marketing activities also needs strong logical thinking skills. Writing is a long way to go. It helps me expressing my own thoughts, and most importantly, it develops my logical thinking skills.

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Brace the World with Open Mind

Against today’s background of knowledge explosion and economic globalization, human resources have become the determining factor of the survival and development of a country. As a result of which, countries all over the world are investing great energy and money in nurturing and absorbing talented people so as to increase international competitiveness. Higher education is also going international as cross-cultural communication is becoming more frequent. The education of foreign students is drawing more and more attention from the world. The number of students going abroad for further education is growing dramatically, along with which comes the problems of foreign students adapting into the new environment. Students coming from different countries bring different cultures with them, which leads to misunderstandings and conflicts. All of the mentioned problems would bring adverse effect to the study and communication of foreign students.

      The United States is claimed to be the Melting Pot, where persons from around the world come and are melted together into one people. Education is the guarantee of social freedom. This advanced idea was proposed by American Third president, Thomas Jefferson, which had a profound influence on American education system. From now on, “all man created equal” became the American dream that pursuit by people from various countries for over two centuries. Thanks to the fame of Melting Pot, the United States is the top option when students choose where to go for further education. According to the latest statistics of US Department of Homeland Security, there were 54,574 Chinese students went abroad to study for private support in 2005 to 2006 academic years. However, in 2012 to 2013 academic year, there are more than 15,000 Chinese students attending to America to pursue higher education, which has increased almost 3 times in seven years. 

      As an important symbol of university standard and internationalization, the education from of foreign students promotes not only a country’s education, scientific research, and development of the economy, but it also plays an immeasurable role in the spread of national culture, promoting the people’s friendship, and expands the international influence. However, under the premise of a large number of students choosing to receive the higher education outside of their home country, cultural differences have become an issue that makes more and more people concern about.

Obviously, there are several challenges that international students face when they study abroad. Should both international students and native people need to find a way to bridging the gap of cultural differences? If yes, what does it bring the benefits to both parties?

The purpose of this essay is to find a way to solve this issue by analyzing related statistics and information. In my argument, I will discuss how differing form the challenges that international students face while they study in the US. To convince my audience, I will provide more information about international student’s experiences and personal experiences with objective view. Moreover, I will mainly discuss how an understanding of cultural differences could benefit both international students and natives.

1. WHAT IS CULTURAL GAP

According to Edward B. Taylor, culture is “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society”. From this definition, culture is what people get from the society, the social environment where she/he lives. Culture exists in a society. Culture is gained outside. And culture is an entirety.

During the development of human history, different cultures grew into their own shape. Cultural gap refers to the differences between different cultures. As everyone knows, there are different cultures existing around the world. The difference is especially extreme when comparing the East and the West.  

Students come to the United States and try to mingle into the American society and to become “American”. However, they soon find it quite difficult. On the American campus, students get together in groups under the blue sky and on the green lawn. However, you would soon notice that students gather together according to the color of their skin. White people are not with black people. Even the Korean and the Japanese are different groups. There are even different groups of mainland Chinese, Hong Kong students and Taiwanese students. This kind of phenomenon suggests the old English saying “Birds of the same feather fly together”. This kind of phenomenon also illustrates the independence of different cultures in the same society.

Students come to the United States and try to mingle into the American society and to become “American”. However, they soon find it quite difficult. On the American campus, students get together in groups under the blue sky and on the green lawn. However, you would soon notice that students gather together according to the color of their skin. White people are not with black people. Even the Korean and the Japanese are different groups. There are even different groups of mainland Chinese, Hong Kong students and Taiwanese students. This kind of phenomenon suggests the old English saying “Birds of the same feather fly together”. This kind of phenomenon also illustrates the independence of different cultures in the same society.

In the circumstance of the gap of existing cultural differences, foreign students face many problems while they study in the US, such as language barrier, friend-making, academic work, cultural experiences, and social support. These problems happen all the time in students’ day to day life, which could directly affect their both physical and mental health condition.

Cultural gap brings problems and intensity to both foreign students and native students because they are sharing the same environment, which shall be illustrated as follow.

2. THE CONSEQUENCES OF CULTURAL GAP

Culture is the way of life and perception of a nation built upon its belief, value and system, which affects not only the behaviors, but also the evaluation systems. As a result, cultural bias exists in any country. To be more vivid, culture is like a pair of tainted glasses, from which, the truth of everything is hidden. It is understandable for us to judge something new to us with standards conforming to our own culture. However, the consequences are usually misunderstanding, even conflicts.

Foreign students in the United States come from different countries and regions, bringing along with different ethical background, political background, historical background and cultural background. They are of different academic degrees, ages, and professions. But their purposes of coming to the United States are shared. They come to study. They need to strive to adapt to the different cultures they are facing.

Acculturation refers to the process where people under the circumstances of new cultural environment gradually adjust, accept, adapt, and integrate into the culture. Douglas Brown (33-48) classified acculturation into 4 phases: excitement and euphoria, cultural shock, gradual and at first vacillating recovery, and near or full recovery. When foreign students are confronted with a new physical, social and cultural environment, they are filled with feelings of freshness and excitement. The unfamiliar environment brings novelty and interest to them, which makes them ignore the difficulties and problems they are about to confront soon. However, as time goes on, with the more contacts with the local culture, most of them would feel inadaptable mentally. A lot of students would feel confused when they find the differences between the new reality and their own expectations. The bigger the differences are, the more they feel confused. If this kind of inadaptability is not handled properly in time, the study and life of the foreign students shall be severely affected.

Fischer described the interesting facts of the difficulty of integrating the cultural differences among international and American students. As the number of international student grows, the cultural differences seem like a serious issue that people need to pay attention for. A recent survey shown that one in third international student have no American friend, and students from China and East Asia show higher dissatisfaction with social relationships. According to the study, among more than 450 participants, students from Anglophone countries and from Northern and Central Europe tended to have more opportunities than the others of making American friend.

Miranda pointed out that international students face several challenges while studying in the US. Miranda said that many international students choose go abroad to pursue a higher quality education in order to have more opportunities to lead a better life. As a result of the study, the main challenges that international students are facing are academic work, social life, and cultural experiences in America, social service/support, and financial support.

In the report article titled “Uneven Experience: What’s Missing and What Matters For Today’s International Student”, the authors confirmed many worrying trends that were reported in various educational periodicals about international students’ experiences in the US, such as the lack of communication, lower-quality of interaction, and uneven learning experiences. The authors claimed that “encounters with difference that make a difference” by providing accurate statistics about the issues that mentioned before. The statistics are not only compare between international student and native student about the issues of the lack of communication, lower quality of interaction, and uneven learning experiences, but also provided a guideline for international student to enhance their oversea-study experience, also, it provided an insight for natives to understand better about international student.

3. BENEFITS OF BRIDGING THE CULTURAL GAP

To enhance the international’s experience while they study in the US and to improve the intercultural communication could be difficult. Obviously, the cultural differences do cause foreign students to face many challenges that directly affect their main purpose of choosing to study abroad: academic works. Therefore, the facts are a clear sign that indicate the problems that need to be solved. According to the several articles, to solve this problem is not only an issue for foreign student, but also for people who lived in the US. Moreover, the interaction between international student and local people could offer both parties an opportunity to have a better understanding of cultural differences. In other words, there are benefits for both the foreign students and local students.

3.1 Help Foreign Students to Integrate into the American Society and to Receive Better Education. There are different cultural norms at countries and regions all around the world, which indicates different emotional or behavioral standards. Language and religion are the top 2 factors that may cause barriers for foreign students to integrate into the American classroom and society. Language is the first obstacle for the foreign students to understand. Differences between languages could completely prevent two people from understanding each other. Also religious differences may lead to serious misunderstanding.

What’s more, different cultures set different constraints for behaviors. For example, in a Chinese classroom, the students are told to respect the teacher and behave themselves, therefore the Chinese classroom is usually very quiet except the voice of the teacher, which to a certain degree constrains the freedom of the students’ imagination. Creativeness is also constrained as well. In the classroom of the United States, though students are encouraged to think and challenge the teacher. The atmosphere of the classroom can be very lively even furious, while the Chinese students may seem relatively silent and confused. This is very unfavorable for them to grasp the knowledge they are seeking for. This would also frustrate them and eventually isolate them from the rest of the society.

Concerning the language barriers, foreign students should take serious consideration before they actually go abroad if their language skills are not sophisticated enough to live in a total foreign country. They’d best pass the GRE. Once they are in the United States, the school can classify their language levels so as to give different lectures accordingly. The school should also introduce the teaching contents to the foreign students step by step in order that they can truly master what they are taught. What’s more, the school could also try to group local students with foreign students so the local students could help the partners to get use to the local teaching mode and atmosphere as soon as possible by “making friends”.

If cultural gap can be bridged, the foreign students would feel accepted and feel much easy to integrate into the classroom and the society, so as to understand the knowledge and the local culture better.

3.2 Brings More Opportunities for the Foreign Students to Know Themselves, Demonstrate Themselves and Participate in the Social Activities Equally. Cultural gap sets obstacles for people to understand each other. The lack of understanding would cause distance between people making them difficult to make friends with each other. That’s mostly the reason why on the campus “Birds of the same feather fly together”.

To fill the vacancy of understanding foreign cultures, cross-cultural courses and lectures should be given constantly. With the open mind, the school, the teachers and local students shall welcome the foreign students much easier.

If cultural gap could be bridged, friends-making between students with different cultural background would be much easier. The campus would become more harmonious where students with different color can sit together to share with each other. The foreign students would be given more courage to participate different activities to see more, to experience more, and to learn more. By communicating with people with different cultures, foreign students may understand better who they are with a more objective perspective. At the same time, they can demonstrate who they are to others more rationally.

3.3 Help Elevate the Social Status of Foreign Students. Misunderstanding leads to bias and racism. Bias and racism leads to the low social status. The United States is a country of freedom and equality. However, the unfairness has never been eliminated from the society. Due to the lack of communication, the stereotypes of different cultures like the terrorism of Middle East people and the immigration tendency of Chinese people continue to prevent the Americans from accepting the foreign students with open mind. As a result, foreign students are granted relatively low social status.

However, the old impressions of other cultures are not correct. Not all the Middle East people are terrorists, or all the Chinese people want to become a real American citizen. Therefore, cross-cultural lectures should pass updated and objective information from different countries to the whole country.

If cultural gap could be bridged, bias and racism could be eliminated. Foreign students can be better welcome and embraced by the local people so as the social status can be promoted.

3.4 Open up New Horizons for Local Students. Foreign students from different countries and regions bring with them their unique cultures. On the campus of the United States, by bridging the cultural gap, different cultures can be demonstrated. Each student should be encouraged to give a presentation to the rest of the class about his/her own unique culture. Each culture has its own essence, which can enrich education. With the presentation, the rest of the class can know about the uniqueness and specialty of the presented culture. New horizons can also be opened up for local students. At the same time, the language and communication skills can be improved.

3.5 Help Local Students Develop Wider Perspective of the World. By learning communicating with different foreign students, local students could develop different but wider perspective about the world. They become more open and tolerant of different cultures. They can view issues with more rationality. To be more specific, local students who can bridge the cultural gap are more likely to experience lifestyle or work in a different country as they own broaden international perspectives. With the experiences of associating with different cultures, local students develop different world view with others. At today’s world, international business is the trend. The whole world is becoming a single integrated market. Cross-cultural communication ability is the key to the success of international business. With practice and experience accumulated from school time, local students can perform better in the future career as they know better how to handle cultural shock in workplace.

3.6 Help to Create the Harmony of the Society. Cultural gap may cause misunderstanding, bias and racism. Even worse, conflicts may arise. Bridging the cultural gap can create a warm, equal, and open society. In this kind of society, people feel accepted and inspired. Hence, cohesion, energy and stability can be strengthened. Conflicts would be consequently reduced.

4. WAYS OF BRIDGING THE GULTURAL GAP

Although there are complicated factors affecting bridging cultural gap, it is still a vital task to fulfill.

Teachers and the school should help cross-cultural communication. Foreign students come from different countries and regions, who boast different cultural background, thinking mode, and customs. Teachers and the school should be the first ones to understand the differences and help local students to understand and treat the difference with open mind.

The teachers and school should at the same time help the foreign students to understand the local cultures, especially the differences from their own cultures, so as to integrate into the local society. Cross-cultural knowledge should also be passed to them.

A harmonious campus environment and colorful campus cultural activities could provide opportunities for foreign students to understand and to get used to the local cultures. Foreign students, who leave their home land for an unfamiliar environment, need activities and friends to enrich their life out of the classroom. Activities and friends can help release intensity, loneliness, and homesickness. Activities can also create opportunities for both foreign and local students to practice cross-cultural communication skills. Thus, both local students and foreign students should be encouraged to join different clubs. By socializing with each other, different cultures can mingle together.

However, bridging the cultural gap is not to give up their own cultures. For the foreign students, they should also remember the following while bridging the cultural gap.

Foreign students should recognize their own cultures. They have to stick to their own principles, believing that you have your own advantages, characteristics and contributions to make. You can survive in the United States just like others.

Foreign students should keep open mind and develop keen observation. They should try to understand the behaviors and hidden value system of the local students. What’s more, differences between the two cultures should be noticed. Foreign students should never use their own value system to judge the local students.

The foreign students should never draw back from difficulties. Foreign students should adjust their attitude all the time. They should re-evaluate their own expectations from time to time so as to keep optimistic. When confronted with frustrations, they should continue to keep in touch with others, and to experience life. They can participate in volunteering activities, religious activities or study groups, where they can make friends with common interests. What’s more, foreign students should remember to appreciate, and to see things from the positive point of view.

Foreign students should keep strengthening language ability. Language is the tool to communicate and understand different cultures. They should get more acquaintances with teachers, local and other foreign students. Ask if there are questions.

With the fast growth in the number of foreign students in the United States, the background of foreign students is also growing more and more complicated. Both the local and foreign students should keep up with the trend, adjust themselves to the new things. They need to keep an open mind so as to bridge the cultural gap.

 

 Work Cited:

  1. Fischer Karin. “Many Foreign Students Are Friendless in the U.S., Study Find.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Web. June 14, 2012. May 2, 2014.http://chronicle.com/article/Many-Foreign-Students-Find/132275/
  2. Miranda Lin. “Students of Different Minds: Bridging the Gaps of International Students Studying in the US.” US-China Education Review 3 (2012):  333-344. Eric. Web. 1 April 2014. May 2, 2014.
  3. Chris R. Glass, Stephanie Buus, Larry A. Braskamp. “Uneven Experience: What’s Missing and What Matters For Today’s International Student.” Chicago, IL: Global Perspective Inc. Web. October, 2013. May 2, 2014.
  4. Baidu Wenku. “The concept of American education.” Baidu, Inc. March 7, 2012. Web. May 2, 2014. http://wenku.baidu.com/view/678191dcad51f01dc281f1e8.html
  5. United States. Dept. of Homeland Security. Office of Immigration Statistics. “Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Resident Nonimmigrant Population in the United States: January 2012.” Homeland Security. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, February 2014. Web. May 2, 2014. 
  6. United States. Dept. of Homeland Security. Office of Immigration Statistics. “Nonimmigrant Admissions (I-94 Only)By Category of Admission and Region and Country of Citizenship.” Homeland Security. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2005. Web. May 2, 2014.
  7. Tylor, Edward B. “Primitive Culture: Researches into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Language, Art, and Custom.” 2nd ed. 2 vols. London: John Murray, 1873. Print. May 2, 2014.
  8. Brown, H D. “Learning a Second Culture, Culture Bound.” Cambridge University Press. 1986. Print. May 2, 2014.

 

Proposal: Bridging the gap of cultural differences between international student and native student.

As economic globalization and internationalization of higher education develops, the education of foreign student is getting more and more attention in countries all over the world. As an important symbol of their university level and internationalization, when foreign students go abroad for their education, it promotes not only a country’s education, scientific research, and development of the economy, but also plays an immeasurable role in the spread of national culture, promotes the people’s friendship, and expands the international influence. According to the latest statistics of US Department of Homeland Security, there were 54,574 Chinese students went abroad to study for private support in 2005 to 2006 academic years. In 2012 to 2013 academic year, there are more than 15,000 Chinese students attending to America to pursuit higher education, which has increased almost 3 times in seven years. Given that so many international students are part of the American higher-education system, cultural differences have become an issue of concern to more and more people.

Obviously, there are several challenges that international student are facing when they studying abroad. Should both international students and native people need to find a way to bridge the gap of cultural differences? If yes, what benefits does it bring to both parties? If not, what kind of different customs form the cultural differences between various countries?

In the circumstance of the gap of existing cultural differences, foreign students are facing many problems while they are studying in the US, such as language barrier, friend-making, academic works, cultural experiences in America, and social support. These problems happened all the time in student’s day to day life, which could directly affect them on both physical and mental health condition. Therefore, bridging the gap of cultural differences could be a significant issue that benefits both international and native students.

Fischer described the interesting facts of the difficulty of integrating the cultural differences among international and American students. As the number of international student grows, the cultural differences seem like a serious issue that people need to pay attention to. A recent survey shows that one third of international students have no American friends, and students from China and East Asia show higher dissatisfaction with the social relationship. According to the study, among more than 450 participants, students from Anglophone countries and from Northern and Central Europe tended to have more opportunities than the others of making American friends.

Lin’s article pointed out that international students face several challenges while studying in the US. Lin said that many international students choose to go abroad to pursue a higher quality education in order to have more opportunities to lead a better life. As a result of the study, the main challenges that international students are facing are academic work, social life, and cultural experiences in America, social service/support, and financial support.

In the report article titled “Uneven Experience: What’s Missing and What Matters For Today’s International Student”, the authors confirmed many worrying trends that were reported in various educational periodicals about international students’ experiences in the US, such as the lack of communication, lower quality of interaction, and uneven learning experiences. The authors claimed that “encounters with difference that make a difference” by providing accurate statistics about the issues that were mentioned before. The statistics not only compare these issues between international student and native student, but also provides a guideline for international students to enhance their oversea-study experience, also, it provides an insight for natives to understand international students better.

To enhance the internationals’ experience while they are studying in the US and improve the understanding of interculture could be difficult. Obviously, the cultural differences do cause foreign students to face many challenges that directly affect their main purpose of choosing to study abroad: academic works. Therefore, the facts are a clear sign that indicate the problems that need to be solved. According to the several articles, to solve this problem is not only an issue for foreign students, but also for people who live in the US. Moreover, the interaction between international students and local people could offer both parties an opportunity to have a better understanding of cultural differences.

My purpose is to find a way to solve this issue by analyzing related statistics and information. In my argument, I will discuss how clashing customs form the challenges that international student are facing while they are studying in the US. To convince my audience, I will provide more information about international personal and students’ experiences. I will provide both experiences and objective views as evidence. Moreover, I will mainly discuss how understanding of cultural differences could benefit both international student and natives.

 

Work Cited:

Fischer Karin. “Many Foreign Students Are Friendless in the U.S., Study Find.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Web. June 14, 2012.  April 17, 2014. http://chronicle.com/article/Many-Foreign-Students-Find/132275/

Miranda Lin. “Students of Different Minds: Bridging the Gaps of International Students Studying in the US.” US-China Education Review 3 (2012):  333-344. Eric. Web. 1 April 2014. April 17, 2014.

Chris R. Glass, Stephanie Buus, Larry A. Braskamp. “Uneven Experience: What’s Missing and What Matters For Today’s International Student.” Chicago, IL: Global Perspective Inc. Web. October, 2013.http://international.illinois.edu/faculty/docs/Report-on-International-Students.pdf

United States. Dept. of Homeland Security. Office of Immigration Statistics. “Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Resident Nonimmigrant Population in the United States: January 2012.” Homeland Security. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, February 2014. Web. April 22, 2014. 

United States. Dept. of Homeland Security. Office of Immigration Statistics. “Nonimmigrant Admissions (I-94 Only)By Category of Admission and Region and Country of Citizenship.” Homeland Security. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2005. Web. April 22 2014.

 

Formal Assignment 3

1.

With economic globalization and internationalization of higher education develops, the foreign student education getting more and more attention of countries all over the world. As an important symbol of university level and internationalization, foreign student education can not only promote a country’s education, scientific research, and development of the economy, but also plays an immeasurable role in the spread of national culture, promoting the people’s friendship, and expand the international influence. According to the latest statistics of US Department of Homeland Security, only 65 Chinese students go abroad to student for private support in 2005 to 2006 academic years. In 2012 to 2013 academic year, there are more than 23,000 Chinese students attend to America to pursuit higher education, which has increased more than 300 times in seven years. Under the premise of a large number of students choose to receive the higher education, cultural differences has become an issue that makes more and more people concern about.

Obviously, there are several challenges that international student facing when they studying abroad. Should both international student and native people need to find a way to bridging the gap of cultural differences? If yes, what does it bring the benefits to both parties? If not, what kind of different customs form the cultural differences between various countries?

2.    
In the circumstance of the gap of cultural differences existing, foreign students facing many problems while they studying in the US, such as language barrier, friend-making, academic works, cultural experiences in America, and social support. These problems happened all the time in student’s day to day life, which could directly affect them on both physical and mental health condition. Therefore, bridging the gap of cultural differences could be a significant issue that makes both international student and native being beneficial.

3.      
Fischer described the interesting facts of the difficulty of integrating the cultural differences among international and American students. As the increasing number of international student grows, the cultural differences seem like a serious issue that people need to pay attention for. A recent survey shown that one in third international students have no American friend, and students from China and East Asian shown the higher dissatisfaction with the social relationship. According to the study, among more than 450 participants, students from Anglophone countries and from Northern and Central Europe tended to having more opportunities than the others of making American friend.

     
Miranda’s pointed out that international students face several challenges while studying in the US. Miranda said that many international students choose go abroad to pursue a higher quality education in order to have more opportunities to leading a better life. As result of the study, the main challenges that international students are facing are academic work, social life, and cultural experiences in American, social service/support, and financial support.

In the report article titled “Uneven Experience: What’s Missing and What Matters For Today’s International Student”, the authors confirmed many worrying trends that reported in various educational periodical about international student’s experiences in the US, such as the lack of communication, lower-quality of interaction, and uneven learning experiences. The authors claimed that “encounters with difference that make a difference” (Glass, C. R., Buus, S., & Braskamp) by providing accurate statistics about the issues that mentioned before. The statistics are not only comparison between international student and native student about the issues of the lack of communication, lower quality of interaction, and uneven learning experiences, but also provided a guideline for international student to enhance their oversea-study experience, also, it provided an insight for natives to understand better about international student.

4.
To enhance the international’s experience while they studying in the US and improve the interculture develops could be difficult. Obviously, the cultural differences do cause foreign student faced many challenges that directly affect their main purpose of choosing to study abroad: academic works. Therefore, the facts are a clear sign that indicate the problems need to be solved. According to the several articles, to solve this problem is not only an issue for foreign student, but also for people who lived in the US. Moreover, the interaction between international student and local people could offer both parties an opportunity to have a better understanding of cultural differences.

5.      
My purpose is to find a way to solve this issue by analyzing related statistics and information.In my argument, I will discuss how the different customs form the challenges that international student facing while they studying in the US. To convince my audience, I will provide more information about international student’s experiences and personal experiences with objective view. Moreover, I will mainly discuss how does understating of cultural differences could benefits both international student and natives.

 

Work Cited

Karin Fischer. “Many Foreign Students Are Friendless in the U.S., Study Find.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. Web. June 14, 2012. http://chronicle.com/article/Many-Foreign-Students-Find/132275/

Lin, Miranda. “Students of Different Minds: Bridging the Gaps of International Students Studying in the US.” US-China Education Review 3 (2012):  333-344. Eric. Web. 1 April 2014.

Chris R. Glass, Stephanie Buus, Larry A. Braskamp. “Uneven Experience: What’s Missing and What Matters For Today’s International Student.” Chicago, IL: Global Perspective Inc. Web. October, 2013. http://international.illinois.edu/faculty/docs/Report-on-International-Students.pdf

 

Annotated Bibliography: Cultural Differences

Karin Fischer. “Many Foreign Students Are Friendless in the U.S., Study Find.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. June 14, 2012.

Lin, Miranda. “Students of Different Minds: Bridging the Gaps of International Students Studying in the US.” US-China Education Review 3 (2012):  333-344. Eric. Web. 1 April 2014.

 

       Fischer described the interesting facts of the difficulty of integrating the cultural differences among international and American students. As the increasing number of international student grows, the cultural differences seem like a serious issue that people need to pay attention for. A recent survey shown that one in third international students have no American friend, and students from China and East Asian shown the higher dissatisfaction with the social relationship. According to the study, among more than 450 participants, students from Anglophone countries and from Northern and Central Europe tended to having more opportunities than the others of making American friend. Miranda’s pointed out that international students face several challenges while studying in the US. Miranda said that many international students choose go abroad to pursue a higher quality education in order to have more opportunities to leading a better life. As result of the study, the main challenges that international students are facing are academic work, social life, and cultural experiences in American, social service/support, and financial support.

       Both article mainly talked about the international students face challenges during their oversea-study period, and Miranda offered some useful advices for those who struggling with the cultural differences. To solve this problem is not only an issue for foreign student, but also for people who lived in the US. Moreover, the interaction between international student and local people could offer both parties an opportunity to have a better understanding of cultural differences.

        With the rapid growth in number of international student, the cultural differences getting appeared more and more in people’s daily life. According to Fischer’s and Miranda’s article, we could see international student encounter various difficulties that most native did not realized in personal, academic, and professional fields. The articles provide much useful information that helps me to frame the thesis statement of my research paper. In my research paper, I will mainly focus on how to improve the cultural differences between native and international student. By understanding the diverse custom and values in different countries, people could easier to find a way to understand the definition of cultural differences, and help the interculture develops well in the age of international contacts are more and more frequent. 

Reading Response

Sherry Turkle started her case with technology can cause problems. She pointed out that we are letting technology take us places that we don’t want go. She mentioned that the devices are so psychologically powerful, they don’t only change what we do, but also change who we are. Turkle thought that we are setting ourselves for trouble in how we relate to each other, and also trouble of how we relate to ourselves. We are getting used to a new way of being alone together because some people can’t get enough of each other, and enjoy interacting with people at a distance. Turkle called that the “goldilocks effect”: not too close, not too far, just right. She said that why people don’t want to have a conversation is because of it taking place in real time, and you can’t control what going to say. Online world let us present the person that we want to be. The conversation tends to be connection. She also mentioned that conversation is important because people used to have conversation and to learn having conversation with ourselves. Nowadays, people expect more from technology, less from each other. Thus, people feel lonely because they don’t really work for learning and understanding each other, but they afraid of intimacy. Being alone feels like a problem that needs to be solved. In conclusion, Turkle said that technology is a way to redefine the human connection, how we care for each other, and how we care for ourselves. But it is also giving us the opportunities to reform our values, and our direction.

              I found this video is very interesting to me because I always have the similar feeling like Turkle said in her presentation. Texting does change the way of people’s communication, and it became normal to all people. Technology definitely has helpful side, but sometimes it can be annoyed. I found that almost everybody of my friends is texting, posting, and checking the social network all the time when we hang out. We do being along together, but we do not actually have the real conversation at the time. Apparently, the time that friends being together are no longer attractive to most people, it is like a vicious cycle in our life. Then, my friends and I came up a solution of this problem: we put our cell phone all together on the table and the first person who touches the phone will treat all people at the time. It sounds realistic, but it really works for people who trying to have some deep conversation whiles all friends being together.

       The point of this video is the balance of online conversation and real-time conversion. Nowadays, people feel lonely, but afraid of intimacy. We need to understand there is nothing wrong with being alone and it sometimes helps people have a clearer opinion about things, and most importantly, ourselves. All of people do need to learn how to get used of being alone, in doing so, technology will help us leading a better life.

To Understand The Importance of Reading

 

In the age of information that developed rapidly, people are in the transforming process of adapting the new way of daily routines unintentionally, such as the way of communicating, shopping, and reading. Speaking of reading, it is very valuable activity for people sustain the historical literature, and it helps people develop and extend the way of thinking. In recent decades, more and more scientists dedicate to study on the differences between the old way and the new way: reading online and off. The change from reading offline to online is no longer a mystery, people getting to understand it better with several rigorous studies. In the article titled “This is Your Brain on the Web”, Rebecca J. Rosen mainly talks about what the differences between reading online and offline, how does it effect on the brain with some academic studies supported. In the article titled “Surface Routines”, Michael Meyer also indicated that the different way of reading shapes people’s behaviors that fostered by Internet drives people far a way to become a logical thinker. Moreover, Meyer stated the argument that against what Rosen said the online reading affects people negatively. Although both articles mainly focus on reading online and offline, the various opinions illustrate that reading has influence on human behavior, and it seems helpful, rather than affects people in a negative way.

      To explain what are the differences between reading online and off, both article have the similar opinion about it. Many scientists hammer away at analyzing the intention of being distracting when people are reading online. In the article “This is Your Brain on the Web”, Rosen pointed out that the cognitive differences between reading online and reading offline is not same at all. A serious study published in Rosen’s article shown that only 16 percent users read materials word by word, the rest of them just jumped and scan the materials line by line. The reason of users hard to keep their attention is the brain system tends towards the new stimuli constantly. Therefore, Rosen pointed out that the effect on the people who reading online is in a negative way, such as they are bad at distinguishing irrelevancy, and everything distracts them. The same as the Rosen’s article, in the article “Surface Routines”, Nicholas Carr, American author claimed that it is possible that the way people read online become the same way they read and think in the others fields. Moreover, he found out that Web reader “to be “ruthless pursuit” of bits of personally relevant information” (Meyer). He suggested that the online news contain “highlight”, “keywords”, and “bulleted list” are more attractive than the context contains a mass of narratives and analyses to people. As the result of the evolution of transforming reading style, people could likely tend to superficial thinking instead of critical thinking, which is a harmful impact that altering people’s habit unconsciously.

       Both articles go into the problem of how reading in the different ways affects people’s behavior. In Rosen’s article, Maryanne Wolf, director of the Center for Reading and Language Research at Tufts University commented “it is not just what we read that shapes us, but the fact that we read at all” (Rosen). She wrote about the intellectual development in the reading process. The deep reading expands the way of thinking to people, and vice versa. The intellectual activities are active on the left hemisphere after the meaning recognition became automatic. Therefore, the scanning reading enables people to less decoding in the cursory text. Wolf questioned what does the influences that by replacing a new form of glancing reading bring to people. In comparison, Meyer’s article gave audience the answer by providing more details about the influences on reading online and off. Wolf pointed out that reading practice creates a new circuit within people’s brain, and the way of reading determines the function of the new circuit in Meyer’s article. Moreover, Wolf believed that the volume of information drives people messy and superficial reading, which is not only affect the way of reading, also limits the critical thinking, creativity to people.

       Additionally, Mayer using a study as an argument against the claim of the way of reading online has the negative influences to people. Poynter Institute released the result of EyeTrack’07, five hundred and eighty- two selected people participated for a study that using the camera to track people’s retinas when they are reading newspaper both online and off. The result of this study shown that Web readers were selective in the news they choose, but they read a higher percentage of content than print materials. Furthermore, their heart rates and all actions remained at a reasonable level, which indicated that they were not chaotic or scattered at all. Rather than scanning the word online, the Web readers show the higher comprehensive skills than the printed material readers.    

       The result of EyeTrack’07 is seductive to most, and it seems controversial to people who stand for the detrimental influence of online reading. People might be scanning from word when they clinking among the sites that are full of the mass amount of information, but when they actually read the narrative and investigative materials, the better comprehensive skills emerged in this circumstance. The study proved that there is no difference of reading same materials in different ways, and the online reading might have the potential improvement on comprehensive skills.

In conclusion, according to these two articles about the influences on reading online and off, the fact remains that Meyer’s article with the academic analysis and study is more convincing to people. The main issue that described in both articles is reading. Regardless of reading online or off, reading has the same purpose that to expand people’s sight and have a better understanding of the world as a whole. The most importance of reading is to understand the differences between reading online and off and takes the advantages of it to well develop the way of the critical thinking. It is the prior principle of dealing with everything in the various fields.

 

 

 

 

Work Cited

1. Rebecca J. Rosen. “This Is Your Brain on the Web.”

http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/44491137/this-your-brain-web The Wilson Quarterly, Autumn 2009.

2. Michael Meyer. “Surface Routines.”

http://www.cjr.org/feature/surface_routines.php?page=all Columbia Journalism Review. Nov, 28, 2008.

 

Writing and its meaning to me

Writing has always been one of my favorite activities. I was grown up in a literacy family that every family members had graduated from the major universities in China (it is not a common fact in china), which gave me a profound effect in my life. It is well known that writing is a great way to express the thoughts. As more I read, the more thoughts I had in my mind. I started to write the hard-recognizable-word to describe what happend in my life, what have I done in the day, and how I think about the specific issues. Therefore, this is the moment that I been fond of writing when I was a kid. Then, I was selected to be the high school journalist to write some hot issues associated with high school life because of I was very capable of expressing my own opinions by using the various combination of words. It is a valuable experience in my high school life that most schoolmates agreed with my article, and appreciated my works, wich encouraged me a lot to being as a “writer”.

After graduated from high school, I choose to go abroad to continue my academic study in marketing, which gave a huge chanllege to my studies, and also, writing. I still remember how frustrating I felt when I first time taking the English composition class. I felt I was incapable of writing anything in English, and every experience that I gained in the past just could not help me at all. Then, I found out that language is not only the tool that people used to communicate, but it is how people think in different ways by using the different language. Through reading and watching the English materials, I got much improvement on my English writing skills. From writing the simple sentence, I was free to write in English to express my thoughts.

At the beginning of this term, I registered for a class with an interesting title “living online” among the alternative options. Of course, this class does help me knowing a lot of things that I did not know before, such as some facts about internet, and most importantly, is the writing skills. I was not good at summarizing articles, since I took this class, the various assignments, such as the reading response, and the formal assignment offered me a great opportunity to practice with my summarizing skills. Moreover, I have learned how to use the coherent sturcture to make my works more clear for the audiences to read. According to my learning experience, I knew that I could achieve my goal through my efforts.

With the help from my professor and the people who worked at learning center, I earned a pretty good grade on my first essay. But I know I can do better than that. I am fully aware of I have a lot of work to do to become sophisticated at English writing, and the skill of flexible grammar is the primary goal  that I want to achieved, not only in the rest of this term, also in future.

As a student marjoring in marketing, I think my major is a professional work that created amazing ideas to convince people agreed with certain issues. It is related to writing with deeper thinking and clear expression. Moreover, compare to the Chinese writing,  English writing contains more logical structures that is more straight and effective to the target that making an convincing argument to persuad people. It is the exact work I am interested to do so, and it is the exact satisfaction that I gained from my schoolmates in high school. In conclusion, Grown up in a literacy family made me to be fond of literature. I hope I can doing my favorite thing in my professional field, and using writing as tool with critical thinking and broad knowledgement to create and promote the significant ideas in future.

The Importance of Reading

In the age of information that developed rapidly, people are in the transforming process of adapting the new way of daily routines unintentionally, such as the way of communicating, shopping, and reading. Speak of reading, it is very valuable habit for people to sustain the historical literature, and it helps people to develop the way of thinking. In recent decades, more and more scientists dedicate to study on the differences between the old way and the new way: reading online and off. In the article titled “This is Your Brain on the Web”, Rebecca J. Rosen mainly talks about what the differences between reading online and offline, how does it effect on the brain with some academic studies supported. In the article titled “Surface Routines” Michael Meyer also indicated that the different way of reading shapes people’s behaviors and the behaviors that fostered by Internet drives people far a way to become a logical thinker. Moreover, Meyer stated the argument that against what Rosen said the online reading affects people negatively. Although both articles mainly focus on the way of online reading, they certainly have various opinions about this issue.

       Many scientists hammer at analyzing the intention of being distracting when people are reading online. In the article “This is Your Brain on the Web”, Rosen pointed out that the cognitive differences between reading online and reading offline is completely not same. A serious study published in Rosen’s article shown that only 16 percent users read materials word by word, the rest of them just jumped and scan the materials line by line. The reason of users hard to keep their attention is the brain system tends towards the new stimuli constantly. Therefore, the effect on the people who reading online is in a negative way, such as they are bad at distinguishing irrelevancy; and everything distracts them. The same as the Rosen’s article, in the article “Surface Routines”, Nicholas Carr, American author claimed that it is possible that the way people read online become the same way they read and think in the others fields. Moreover, he found out that Web reader “to be “ruthless pursuit” of bits of personally relevant information” (Meyer). He suggested that the online news contain “highlight”, “keywords”, and “bulleted list” are more attractive than the context contains a mass of narratives and analyses to people. As result of the evolution of transforming reading style, people could likely tend to superficial thinking instead of critical thinking, which is a harmful impact that altering people’s habit unconsciously.

       The way of reading online does has the negative influence on the way of thinking. In Rosen’s article, Maryanne Wolf, director of the Center for Reading and Language Research at Tufts University commented “it is not just what we read that shapes us, but the fact that we read at all” (Rosen). She wrote about the intellectual development in the reading process. The deep reading expands the way of thinking to people, and vice versa. The intellectual activities are active on the left hemisphere after the meaning recognition became automatic. Therefore, the scanning reading enables people to less decoding in the cursory text. Wolf questioned what does the influences that by replacing a new form of glancing reading bring to people. In comparison, Meyer’s article gave audience the answer by providing more details about the influences on reading online and off. Wolf pointed out that reading habit creates a new circuit within people’s brain, and the way of reading determines the function of the new circuit in Meyer’s article. Moreover, Wolf believed that the volume of information drives people to mess and superficial reading, which is not only affect the way of reading, also limits the critical thinking, creativity to people.

       Additionally, Mayer using a study as the statement against the claim of the way of reading online has the negative influences to people. Poynter Institute released the result of EyeTrack’07, five hundreds and eighty- two selected people participated for a study that using the camera to track people’s retinas when they reading newspaper both online and off. The result of this study shown that Web readers were selective in the news they choose, but they read a higher percentage of content than print materials. Furthermore, their heart rates, and all actions remained at a reasonable level, which indicated that they were not chaotic or scattered at all. In contrast, in the Rosen’s article, she claimed that the major differences between is not reading online and off, but between concentrated reading and distracting scanning. The way of opening a book, reading through word by word is not required everyone to do so; more important is the pattern, the way of comprehensive reading that results the ability of critical thinking at a higher standard.  

       In conclusion, according to these two articles about the influences on reading online and off, the fact remains that Rosen’s article with the academic analysis and study is more convincing to people. Both articles talked about the significant differences between reading online and off in details. However, Rosen’s article is more objective to discuss the fact that encountered in the age with increasing volume of information, and her claims is more helpful for people to recognize the issues that might be hard to know in daily life. In my opinion, Meyer’s article is lacking of strong evidences to support his argument. A study that found out that Web readers are more effective when reading online is important; but in both articles, the most importance is to understand the differences between reading online and off, and takes the advantages of it to well develop the way of the critical thinking. It is the priority of dealing with everything in the various fields. At the end, as Rosen said in her article, “online reading materials have a similar purpose, allowing readers to see on the screen something much like what they would normally hold between their two hands…we may soon find that reading in the future is quite like reading in the past.”

 

Work Cited

1. Rebecca J. Rosen. This Is Your Brain on the Web.

The Wilson Quarterly, Autumn 2009.

2. Michael Meyer. Surface Routines. 

http://www.cjr.org. Columbia Journalism Review. Nov, 28, 2008.

Internet and Privacy

The article is mainly talks about online privacy, which is a major problem by most people concerned in this age. A 24-years-old teacher, Ashley Payne asked to resign or be suspended by the principal of the high school in Georgia. The reason of making her being in a tough situation is she has posted a picture that she is holding a cup of beer and a glass of wine on Facebook during her vacation in Europe, and a student’s parent informed that to the principal. Payne thought the picture that she posted on Facebook is privacy that only her close friend can see. However, she had forced to resign from the high school. Payne’s story is a vigilant example to people; it makes realize that privacy is no longer private in this age.

       We all know that Internet in a public platform, but the floating speed of information is faster, and more uncontrolled than we thought. In my opinion, Payne has done nothing wrong with her actions. She just spent some days, and had some fun while she was on vacation. However, the point is what you going to post on various social media is what you choose to present to other people. People should be aware of the potential consequences. At the end, Payne said that she want to be back to her normal life which she passionate about. Internet just killed people’s privacy, and made Payne had the punishment she should not deserved.